Effect Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On The Surroundings – Wikipedia

The international disruption as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in numerous superb results to the surroundings and climate. The global discount in current human hobby which include the good sized decline in deliberate tour turned into coined anthropause and has precipitated a massive drop in air pollutants and water pollution in many regions.[2][three][4][5] In China, lockdowns and different measures ended in a 25 percentage reduction in carbon emissions and 50 percentage discount in nitrogen oxides emissions, which one Earth systems scientist anticipated might also have saved as a minimum 77,000 lives over two months.[6][7][8][9]

Other wonderful outcomes on the environment include governance-gadget-managed investments closer to a sustainable electricity transition and different dreams related to environmental safety which include the European Union’s seven-12 months €1 trillion finances idea and €750 billion healing plan “Next Generation EU” which seeks to order 25% of EU spending for weather-pleasant expenditure.[10][11][12]

However, the pandemic has also furnished cover for illegal activities which includes deforestation of the Amazon rainforest and elevated poaching in Africa. The hindering of environmental international relations efforts in aggregate of overdue capitalism additionally created monetary fallout that a few are expecting will gradual investment in green strength technologies.[thirteen][14][15][16][17][18]

Background[edit]

Up to 2020, growth in the amount of greenhouse gases produced given that the beginning of theindustrialization technology caused common worldwide temperatures on the Earth to rise, causing consequences inclusive of the melting of glaciers and rising sea levels.[19][20][21]

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, measures that had been anticipated to be recommended to fitness government inside the case of a virus protected quarantines and social distancing.[22]

Independently, also previous to the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers argued that reduced monetary pastime could assist decrease worldwide warming in addition to air and marine pollutants, allowing the surroundings to slowly flourish.[23][24] This effect has been observed following past pandemics in 14th century Eurasia and sixteenth-17th century North and South America.[25]

Researchers and officers have also known as for biodiversity protections to shape part of COVID-19 recuperation strategies.[26][27]

Air satisfactory[edit]

TROPOMI information suggests the NO2 tiers in China at the start of 2020. Image from Earth Observatory.

The reduction in motor car visitors has brought about a drop in air pollution degrees. Inset is the empty A1 motorway in Slovenia on 22 March 2020

Due to the pandemic’s effect on journey and enterprise, many areas and the planet as a whole experienced a drop in air pollutants.[6][28][29]Reducing air pollution can lessen both climate change and COVID-19 risks[30] but it is not but clean which forms of air pollution (if any) are common risks to each weather change and COVID-19. The Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air pronounced that techniques to contain the unfold of SARS-CoV-2, which includes quarantines and travel bans, ended in a 25 percentage discount of carbon emission in China.[7][9] In the first month of lockdowns, China produced approximately 200 million fewer metric lots of carbon dioxide than the equal duration in 2019, due to the discount in air visitors, oil refining, and coal consumption.[9] One Earth systems scientist anticipated that this discount may additionally have stored at the least 77,000 lives.[9] However, Sarah Ladislaw from the Center for Strategic & International Studies argued that reductions in emissions because of monetary downturns have to no longer be seen as beneficial, declaring that China’s attempts to return to previous rates of boom amidst trade wars and deliver chain disruptions within the power market will worsen its environmental effect.[31] Between 1 January and eleven March 2020, the European Space Agency observed a marked decline in nitrous oxide emissions from motors, strength vegetation, and factories inside the Po Valley location in northern Italy, coinciding with lockdowns in the area.[32] From regions in North India along with Jalandhar, the Himalayas became visible once more for the primary time in many years, as air fine advanced because of the drop in pollutants.[33][34]

NOx emission modifications in East China[6]

NASA and the ESA had been tracking how the nitrogen dioxide gases dropped substantially at some stage in the initial Chinese section of the COVID-19 pandemic. The financial slowdown from the virus considerably dropped pollution degrees, mainly in cities like Wuhan, China through 25-forty%.[6][35][36] NASA uses an ozone monitoring device (OMI) to research and look at the ozone layer and pollutants together with NO2, aerosols and others. This device helped NASA to method and interpret the records coming in because of the lock-downs worldwide.[37] According to NASA scientists, the drop in NO2 pollutants began in Wuhan, China and slowly spread to the relaxation of the world. The drop changed into additionally very drastic because the virus coincided with the identical time of 12 months as the lunar yr celebrations in China.[6] During this competition, factories and companies were closed for the final week of January to rejoice the lunar year festival.[38] The drop in NO2 in China did now not reap an air excellent of the standard considered desirable by way of fitness government. Other pollution in the air which includes aerosol emissions remained.[39]

A joint research led via scientists from China and U.S. anticipated that nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) emissions decreased by way of 50% in East China from 23 January (Wuhan lockdown) to nine February 2020 in evaluation to the period from 1 to 22 January 2020.[6] Emissions then increased via 26% from 10 February (returned-to-paintings day) to twelve March 2020, indicating viable growing socioeconomic sports after maximum provinces allowed companies to open.[6] It is but to be investigated what COVID-19 manipulate measures are maximum efficient controlling virus spread and least socioeconomic effect.[6]

According to the World Health Organization, extra than 80% of individuals dwelling in cities are exposed to risky air pollutants, which has been associated to an accelerated hazard of COVID-19 problems and mortality.[40][41][42][forty three]

Water first-rate[edit]

Peru[edit]

The Peruvian jungle experienced 14 oil spills from the beginning of the pandemic through early October 2020. Of these, 8 spills had been in a unmarried area operated by way of Frontera Energy del Perú S.A. which ceased operations for the duration of the pandemic and isn’t preserving its wells and pipes. The oil seeps into the floor wherein it contaminates the consuming water of indigenous people in Quichua territory.[44]

Italy[edit]

In Venice, shortly after quarantine started out in March and April 2020, water within the canals cleared and experienced extra water drift.[forty five] The boom in water readability became due to the settling of sediment that is disturbed by using boat visitors and referred to the decrease in air pollutants alongside the waterways.[46]

Wildlife[edit]

Fish costs and call for for fish have decreased due to the pandemic,[forty seven] and fishing fleets around the arena sit usually idle.[forty eight] German scientist Rainer Froese has said the fish biomass will growth due to the pointy decline in fishing, and projected that during European waters, a few fish including herring should double their biomass.[forty seven] As of April 2020, symptoms of aquatic healing stay primarily anecdotal.[forty nine]

As humans stayed at domestic because of lockdown and travel regulations, some animals had been spotted in cities. Sea turtles were noticed laying eggs on seashores they once prevented (including the coast of the Bay of Bengal), due to the decreased degrees of human interference and light pollutants.[50] In america, deadly automobile collisions with animals consisting of deer, elk, moose, bears, mountain lions fell by fifty eight% at some stage in March and April.[51]

Conservationists anticipate that African nations will enjoy a large surge in bush meat poaching. Matt Brown of the Nature Conservancy stated that “When humans haven’t any other alternative for profits, our prediction — and we’re seeing this in South Africa — is that poaching will move up for high-value products like rhino horn and ivory.”[13][14] On the alternative hand, Gabon decided to ban the human consumption of bats and pangolins, to stem the spread of zoonotic illnesses, as SARS-CoV-2 changed into idea to have transmitted itself to human beings via these animals.[fifty two] Pangolins are now not concept to have transmitted SARS-CoV-2.[53] In June 2020, Myanmar allowed breeding of endangered animals which includes tigers, pangolins, and elephants. Experts worry that the Southeast Asian u . s . a .’s attempts to decontrol wildlife hunting and breeding can also create “a New Covid-19.”[fifty four]

Deforestation and reforestation[edit]

The disruption from the pandemic provided cover for illegal deforestation operations. This changed into discovered in Brazil, wherein satellite imagery confirmed deforestation of the Amazon rainforest surging by over 50 percentage as compared to baseline tiers.[16][17] Unemployment because of the COVID-19 pandemic facilitated the recruitment of labourers for Pakistan’s 10 Billion Tree Tsunami marketing campaign to plant 10 billion timber – the estimated international annual net lack of trees[fifty five] – over the span of 5 years.[56][57]

Carbon emissions[edit]

Change in international daily fossil CO₂ emissions, % at some stage in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Daily CO₂ emissions by means of 6 sectors in 2019 and primary 1/2 of 2020[58]

Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on every day CO₂ emissions globally and in 11 international locations[58]

A have a look at posted in May 2020 observed that the each day worldwide carbon emissions throughout the lockdown measures in early April fell via 17% and could result in an annual carbon emissions decline of as much as 7%, which might be the most important drop in view that World War II consistent with the researchers. They ascribe those decreases specifically to the reduction of transportation usage and commercial sports.[59][60] However, it’s been stated that rebounding should diminish reductions because of the extra restricted industrial sports.[sixty one] Nevertheless, societal shifts due to the COVID-19 lockdowns – like great telecommuting, adoption of far off work policies,[62][63] and the use of digital conference generation – may also have a more sustained impact past the fast-time period reduction of transportation usage.[sixty one][sixty four] In a study published in September 2020, scientists estimate that such behavioral modifications developed at some point of confinement may additionally lessen 15% of all transportation CO₂ emissions completely.[sixty five]

Despite this, the awareness of carbon dioxide in the environment become the highest ever recorded in human records in May 2020.[sixty six] Energy and climate expert Constantine Samaras states that “an endemic is the worst feasible way to lessen emissions” and that “technological, behavioural, and structural exchange is the first-rate and handiest manner to lessen emissions”.[sixty six] Tsinghua University’s Zhu Liu clarifies that “only while we might lessen our emissions even more than this for longer could we be able to see the decline in concentrations within the surroundings”.[sixty six] The world’s demand for fossil fuels has decreased by using nearly 10% amid COVID-19 measures and reportedly many power economists believe it could now not get over the disaster.[sixty seven]

Impact on climate[edit]

In a take a look at posted in August 2020, scientists predicted that international NOx emissions declined with the aid of as lots as 30% in April but were offset by using ~20% reduction in worldwide SO₂ emissions that weakens the cooling effect and conclude that the direct impact of the response to the pandemic on international warming will probably be negligible, with an predicted cooling of round zero.01 ±0.half °C by 2030 compared to a baseline scenario however that oblique consequences because of an financial restoration tailored toward stimulating a inexperienced financial system, together with by means of reducing fossil gas investments, should keep away from future warming of zero.3 °C by way of 2050.[68][69] The examine shows that systemic trade in how humanity powers and feeds itself is required for a considerable impact on worldwide warming.[68]

In October 2020 scientists reported, primarily based on close to-real-time activity records, an ‘extraordinary’ abrupt eight.8% lower in global CO₂ emissions within the first half of 2020 as compared to the equal duration in 2019, larger than at some stage in preceding monetary downturns and World War II. Authors observe that such decreases of human sports “cannot be the solution” and that structural and transformational modifications in human monetary control and behaviour structures are wished.[70][fifty eight]

In January 2021 scientists mentioned that discounts in air due to international COVID-19 lockdowns in 2020 had been large than previously envisioned and finish that, due to that, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the climate throughout that yr turned into a moderate warming of Earth’s weather of the yr, rather than a slight cooling. They used climate fashions to identify small influences that couldn’t be discerned with observations. The take a look at’s lead author referred to that aerosol emissions have principal health ramifications and that they can not be a part of a possible method for mitigating global warming.[71][72][seventy three][higher source needed][explanation wished]

Fossil gas enterprise[edit]

A report through the London-primarily based suppose tank Carbon Tracker concludes that the COVID-19 pandemic may additionally have driven the fossil gas industry into “terminal decline” as call for for oil and gas decreases whilst governments aim to boost up the clean strength transition. It predicts that an annual 2% decline in call for for fossil fuels should cause the future earnings of oil, fuel and coal agencies to collapse from an anticipated $39tn to $14tn.[seventy four][sixty seven] However, in line with Bloomberg New Energy Finance more than 1/2 1000000000000 bucks international are currently meant to be poured into excessive-carbon industries.[seventy five] Preliminary disclosures from the Bank of England’s Covid Corporate Financing Facility suggest that billions of pounds of taxpayer aid are meant to be funneled to fossil gas agencies.[seventy five] According to Reclaim Finance the European Central Bank intends to allocate as an awful lot as €220bn (£193bn) to fossil fuel industries.[seventy five] An evaluation by means of Ernst & Young reveals that a stimulus application that specializes in renewable electricity and climate-friendly initiatives could create greater than one hundred,000 direct jobs throughout Australia and estimates that every $1m spent on renewable energy and exports creates four.8 full-time jobs in renewable infrastructure while $1m on fossil fuel projects might best create 1.7 complete-time jobs.[76]

In addition, also due to the results of the COVID-19 pandemic on the fossil gasoline and petrochemical enterprise, natural gas charges have dropped so low that gas producers have been burning it off on-site (not being really worth the price to transport it to cracking centers). Bans on unmarried-use customer plastic (in China, the European Union, Canada, and many countries in Africa), and bans on plastic luggage (in numerous states in the USA) have additionally decreased call for for plastics substantially. Many cracking facilities inside the USA were suspended. The petrochemical industry has been seeking to keep itself by using attempting to hastily make bigger demand for plastic products global (i.e. thru pushbacks on plastic bans and through growing the variety of merchandise wrapped in plastic in countries where plastic use is not already as sizable (i.e. growing countries)).[77]

Cycling[edit]

During the pandemic many human beings have began biking[78] and motorcycle income surged.[79][80][81][eighty two][83] Many cities installation semi-permanent “pop-up bike lanes” to offer people who switch from public transit to bicycles with extra room.[eighty four][85][86][87] In Berlin proposals exist to make the to begin with reversible adjustments everlasting.[88][89][90][ninety one][92]

Retail and meals production[edit]

Small-scale farmers have been embracing virtual technology as a way to directly sell produce, and community-supported agriculture and direct-sell transport structures are at the rise.[93] These strategies have benefited smaller on-line grocery stores which predominantly sell natural and more neighborhood food and might have a positive environmental effect because of purchasers who choose to acquire deliveries in preference to tour to the store through vehicle.[ninety four] Online grocery purchasing has grown considerably throughout the pandemic.[95]

While carbon emissions dropped at some point of the pandemic, methane emissions from livestock endured to rise. Methane is a more potent greenhouse fuel than carbon dioxide.[ninety six]

Litter[edit]

As a outcome of the unprecedented use of disposable face masks, a substantial number of mask were discarded inside the herbal environment, adding to the global burden of plastic waste.[ninety seven] During the COVID-19 pandemic, plastics call for for scientific usage has multiplied substantially in some countries. Besides non-public protective device (PPE) consisting of masks and gloves, a enormous increase in plastic utilization has been related to requirements packaging, and unmarried-use gadgets. Collectively, these shifts in hospitals and normal life may exacerbate environmental issues with plastics, which already existed even earlier than the pandemic took place.[ninety eight]

According to a look at conducted via MIT, the outcomes of the pandemic are expected to generate up to 7,200 heaps of medical waste every day, a whole lot of which are disposable mask. The information became amassed at some point of the first six months of the pandemic (late March 2020 to late September 2020) in the United States. These calculations best pertained to healthcare people, now not together with mask utilization by the general public. Theoretically, if each fitness care worker within the United States wore a brand new N95 mask for each affected person they encountered, the total number of masks required might be about 7.four billion, at a cost of $6.4 billion. This would cause eighty four million kilograms of waste. However, the identical take a look at also found that decontaminating everyday N95 mask, thereby making the masks reusable, drops environmental waste by means of seventy five% and absolutely reusable silicone N95 masks ought to provide an excellent greater discount in waste.[ninety nine]

Investments and different financial measures[edit]

Some have cited that deliberate stimulus bundle can be designed to speed up renewable strength transitions and to enhance power resilience.[sixty one] Researchers of the World Resources Institute have mentioned some of reasons for investments in public shipping as well as biking and walking for the duration of and after the pandemic.[one hundred] Use of public delivery in cities global has fallen by way of 50-ninety%, with significant lack of revenue losses for operators. Investments together with in heightened hygienic practices on public transport and in appropriate social distancing measures may additionally cope with public health concerns about public shipping utilization.[one hundred and one] The International Energy Agency states that guide from governments because of the pandemic ought to pressure speedy growth in battery and hydrogen generation, reduce reliance on fossil fuels and has illustrated the vulnerability of fossil fuels to storage and distribution problems.[102][103][104]

According to a examine posted in August 2020, an monetary healing “tilted toward green stimulus and reductions in fossil gasoline investments” could keep away from destiny warming of zero.3 °C by using 2050.[69]

Secretary-standard of the OECD club of rich countries José Ángel Gurría, known as upon nations to “seize this possibility [of the COVID-19 recovery] to reform subsidies and use public price range in a manner that best advantages humans and the planet”.[75]

In March 2020, the ECB announced the Pandemic Emergency Purchase Programme.[one hundred and five] Reclaim Finance said that the Governing Council failed to combine climate into each the “business as standard” financial policy and the crisis response. It additionally omitted the decision from forty five NGO’s that demanded that the ECB supply a profound shift on climate integration at this decision-making meeting[106] This, as it additionally budget 38 fossil gas corporations, which include 10 energetic in coal and 4 in shale oil and fuel.[107] Greenpeace said that (with the aid of June 2020) the ECB’s covid-related asset purchases already funded the fossil fuel area by using to up to 7.6 billion.[108]

With the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak spreading swiftly in the European Union, the point of interest at the European Green Deal diminished. Some have counseled either a every year pause or maybe a complete discontinuation of the deal. Many trust the modern-day important awareness of the European Union’s modern-day policymaking technique should be the immediately, shorter-term disaster in place of climate trade.[109] In May 2020 the €750 billion European recovery package, known as Next Generation EU,[one hundred ten][111] and the €1 trillion budget have been announced. The European Green deal is a part of it. One of the bundle’s principles is “Do no harm”. The money can be spent only on projects that meet some inexperienced criteria. 25% of all investment will visit weather exchange mitigation. Fossil fuels and nuclear energy are excluded from the funding.[112]

In 2021, Joe Biden introduced the $1.9 trillion American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 on March eleven, 2021.[113] He additionally announced the Build Back Better Plan.

Some resources of sales for environmental initiatives – together with indigenous communities monitoring rainforests and conservation initiatives – faded due to the pandemic.[114]

Despite a brief decline in worldwide carbon emissions, the International Energy Agency warned that the financial turmoil due to the COVID-19 pandemic may additionally save you or put off businesses and others from making an investment in inexperienced energy.[18][one hundred fifteen][116] Others suggested that big agencies and the rich may want to exploit the crisis for monetary advantage consistent with the Shock Doctrine, as has befell after beyond pandemics.[25]

The Earth Overshoot Day passed off more than three weeks later than 2019, because of COVID-19 prompted lockdowns round the world.[117] The president of the Global Footprint Network claims that the pandemic through itself is one of the manifestations of “ecological imbalance”.[118]

Analyses and suggestions[edit]

Multiple organizations and corporation-coalitions – along with think tanks, businesses, business establishments, political bodies and studies institutes – have created unilateral analyses and suggestions for investments and related measures for sustainability-orientated socioeconomic recuperation from the pandemic on international and country wide ranges – including the International Energy Agency,[119][a hundred and one] the Grantham Institute – Climate Change and Environment[a hundred and twenty] and the European Commission.[121][122][123][124][125]The United Nations’ Secretary General António Guterres recommended six extensive sustainability-associated ideas for shaping the restoration.[126]

According to a record commissioned by way of the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy and published in July 2020, investment in 4 key ocean intervention regions ought to help resource monetary recuperation and yield high returns on funding in phrases of economic, environmental and health advantages. According to Jackie Savitz, leader coverage officer for America ocean conservation nonprofit Oceana, techniques which include “placing technology-based totally limits on fishing in order that stocks can get better, training selective fishing to defend endangered species and making sure that fishing equipment doesn’t spoil ocean habitats are all powerful, fee-efficient ways to manage sustainable fisheries”.[127]

Politics[edit]

The pandemic has additionally impacted environmental policy and climate international relations, as the 2020 United Nations Climate Change Conference become postponed to 2021 in response to the pandemic after its venue become transformed to a discipline health facility. This conference become critical as international locations have been scheduled to put up superior nationally decided contributions to the Paris Agreement. The pandemic additionally limits the capability of countries, in particular growing international locations with low nation ability, to post nationally decided contributions, as they are focusing at the pandemic.[15]

Time highlighted three possible dangers: that preparations for the November 2020 Glasgow convention deliberate to comply with the 2015 Paris Agreement have been disrupted; that the public could see global warming as a lower priority trouble than the pandemic, weakening the strain on politicians; and that a desire to “restart” the worldwide economy would purpose an extra in more greenhouse gasoline manufacturing. However the drop in oil charges for the duration of the COVID-19 recession can be an awesome possibility to get rid of fossil fuel subsidies, consistent with the Executive Director of the International Energy Agency.[128]

Carbon Tracker argues that China should no longer stimulate the economic system through building planned coal-fired strength stations, because many could have negative cashflow and might grow to be stranded property.[129]

The United States’ Trump administration suspended the enforcement of a few environmental protection laws through the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during the pandemic. This permits polluters to ignore some environmental legal guidelines if they can claim that those violations had been as a result of the pandemic.[a hundred thirty]

Predicted rebound impact[edit]

The restarting of greenhouse-gasoline generating industries and transport following the COVID-19 lockdowns changed into hypothesized as an occasion that would make contributions to increasing greenhouse gasoline production in preference to decreasing it.[131]In the transport sector, the pandemic ought to cause numerous effects, consisting of behavioral modifications – such as greater teleworking and teleconferencing and changes in business fashions – which can, in flip, translate in reductions of emissions from delivery. A clinical take a look at posted in September 2020 estimates that sustaining such behavioral adjustments should impede 15% of all transport emissions with restricted influences on societal well-being.[sixty five] On the other hand, there may be a shift far from public transport, pushed through fear of contagion, and reliance on unmarried-occupancy automobiles, which might considerably increase emissions.[132] However, city planners are also creating new cycle paths in a few towns at some point of the pandemic.[133] In June 2020 it became said that carbon dioxide emissions were rebounding quick.[134]

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development recommends governments keep to implement current air pollutants rules at some stage in the COVID-19 crisis and after the disaster, and channel monetary guide measures to public delivery companies to beautify capability and exceptional with a focal point on decreasing crowding and promoting cleaner facilities.[one hundred thirty five]

Fatih Birol, govt director of the International Energy Agency, states that “the following 3 years will determine the route of the subsequent 30 years and past” and that “if we do no longer [take movement] we are able to really see a rebound in emissions. If emissions rebound, it’s far very hard to see how they may be added down in destiny. This is why we’re urging governments to have sustainable recovery applications.”[122]

Psychology and risk perception[edit]

Chaos and the poor outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic may additionally have made a catastrophic destiny seem less far off and movement to save you it extra necessary and affordable. However, it can also have the other impact with the aid of having minds consciousness on extra instantaneous troubles of the pandemic in place of ecosystemic troubles which includes deforestation.[136]

Impact on environmental monitoring and prediction[edit]

Weather forecasts[edit]

The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) introduced that a international reduction in plane flights due to the pandemic may want to effect the accuracy of climate forecasts, mentioning air carriers’ use of Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) as an crucial contribution to climate forecast accuracy. The ECMWF expected that AMDAR coverage would lower via sixty five% or extra due to the drop in industrial flights.[137]

Seismic noise reduction[edit]

Seismologists have said that quarantine, lockdown, and other measures to mitigate COVID-19 have ended in an average worldwide excessive-frequency seismic noise reduction of up to 50%. This look at reviews that the noise discount resulted from a mixture of things which includes decreased visitors/transport, decrease commercial interest, and weaker monetary pastime. The reduction in seismic noise changed into located at each remote seismic tracking stations and at borehole sensors established numerous hundred metres under the ground. The look at states that the reduced noise level may also permit for better tracking and detection of herbal seismic resources, which includes earthquakes and volcanic interest.[138]

See also[edit]

  • Environmental effect of aviation
  • Green recovery
  • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic
  • Pandemic prevention#Environmental coverage and economics

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  • External links[edit]

    • COVID-19 Earth Observation Dashboard by NASA, ESA, and JAXA
    • Rapid Action on COVID-19 and Earth Observation Dashboard by ESA and EC
    • Observed and Potential Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Environment
    • United Nations: Six Nature Facts Related to Coronaviruses
    • WHO air best index/document of air pollution in 2020
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    • North Macedonia
    • Serbia

    European Union

    • Austria
    • Belgium
    • Bulgaria
    • Croatia

      • timeline
    • Cyprus

      • Northern Cyprus
    • Czech Republic
    • Denmark

      • Faroe Islands
    • Estonia
    • Finland

      • Åland Islands
    • France

      • Guadeloupe
      • French Guiana
      • Réunion
      • Martinique
      • Mayotte
      • Normandy
      • Saint Martin
    • Germany

      • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Greece
    • Hungary
    • Ireland

      • timeline

        • January–June 2020
        • July–December 2020
        • January–June 2021
        • July–December 2021
      • financial effect
      • social effect
      • vaccination
    • Italy

      • lockdown
      • timeline
    • Latvia
    • Lithuania
    • Luxembourg
    • Malta
    • Netherlands
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Romania

      • timeline
    • Slovakia
    • Slovenia
    • Spain

      • timeline
      • Asturias
      • Canary Islands
      • Ceuta
      • Community of Madrid
      • Melilla
    • Sweden

      • timeline
      • authorities response

        • Operation Gloria

    EFTA countries

    • Iceland
    • Liechtenstein
    • Norway
    • Switzerland

    Microstates

    • Andorra
    • Monaco
    • San Marino
    • Vatican City

    North

    AmericaMexico

    • timeline

    Central America

    • Belize
    • Costa Rica
    • El Salvador
    • Guatemala
    • Honduras
    • Nicaragua
    • Panama

    Canada

    • timeline
    • financial impact

      • Federal aid in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada
    • vaccination

      • by way of province
    • military reaction
    • Atlantic Bubble
    • Alberta
    • British Columbia
    • Manitoba
    • New Brunswick
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Northwest Territories
    • Nova Scotia
    • Nunavut
    • Ontario

      • timeline
      • Ottawa
      • Peel Region
      • Toronto
    • Prince Edward Island
    • Quebec

      • Montreal

        • boroughs
        • timeline
    • Saskatchewan

      • timeline
    • Yukon

    Caribbean

    • Antigua and Barbuda
    • Bahamas
    • Barbados
    • British Overseas Territories

      • Anguilla
      • British Virgin Islands
      • Cayman Islands
      • Montserrat
      • Turks and Caicos Islands
      • response
    • Cuba

      • Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
    • Dominica
    • Dominican Republic
    • Dutch Caribbean

      • Aruba
      • Curaçao
      • Sint Maarten
      • Caribbean Netherlands

        • Bonaire
        • Saba
        • Sint Eustatius
    • French West Indies

      • Guadeloupe
      • Martinique
      • Saint Barthélemy
      • Saint Martin
    • Grenada
    • Haiti
    • Jamaica
    • Saint Kitts and Nevis
    • Saint Lucia
    • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
    • Trinidad and Tobago

      • timeline
    • US insular areas

      • Puerto Rico
      • U.S. Virgin Islands

    United States

    • timeline

      • 2020
      • 2021
    • social impact
    • economic impact
    • responses

      • federal authorities
      • state and nearby governments

        • California authorities reaction
        • New York authorities response
        • Texas authorities response
        • Eastern States Multi-nation Council
        • Midwest Governors Regional Pact
        • Western States Pact
    • Trump management verbal exchange
    • Alabama
    • Alaska
    • American Samoa
    • Arizona

      • Navajo Nation
    • Arkansas
    • California

      • timeline
      • S.F. Bay Area
    • Colorado
    • Connecticut
    • Delaware
    • Florida
    • Georgia
    • Guam
    • Hawaii
    • Idaho
    • Illinois
    • Indiana
    • Iowa
    • Kansas
    • Kentucky
    • Louisiana
    • Maine
    • Maryland

      • timeline
    • Massachusetts

      • timeline
      • Boston

        • timeline
    • Michigan
    • Minnesota
    • Mississippi
    • Missouri
    • Montana
    • Nebraska
    • Nevada
    • New Hampshire
    • New Jersey
    • New Mexico
    • New York

      • New York City
    • North Carolina
    • North Dakota
    • Northern Mariana Islands
    • Ohio

      • Columbus
    • Oklahoma
    • Oregon

      • Portland
    • Pennsylvania

      • Philadelphia
    • Puerto Rico
    • Rhode Island
    • South Carolina
    • South Dakota
    • Tennessee
    • Texas

      • timeline
      • Austin
    • U.S. Virgin Islands
    • Utah
    • Vermont
    • Virginia
    • Washington
    • Washington, D.C.

      • White House
    • West Virginia
    • Wisconsin
    • Wyoming

    Atlantic

    • Bermuda
    • Greenland
    • Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    Oceania

    • American Samoa
    • Cook Islands
    • Easter Island
    • Federated States of Micronesia
    • Fiji

      • timeline
    • French Polynesia
    • Guam
    • Hawaii
    • Kiribati
    • Marshall Islands
    • New Caledonia
    • New Zealand

      • timeline

        • 2020

          • February–June
          • July–December
        • 2021

          • January–June
          • July–December
      • government response
      • social impact
      • controlled isolation
    • Northern Mariana Islands
    • Palau
    • Papua New Guinea

      • Bougainville
    • Samoa
    • Solomon Islands
    • Vanuatu
    • Wallis and Futuna

    Australia

    • timeline

      • 2020
      • 2021

        • January–June
        • July–December
    • Australian Capital Territory
    • New South Wales
    • Northern Territory
    • Queensland
    • South Australia
    • Tasmania
    • Victoria
    • Western Australia

    South

    America

    • Argentina

      • timeline
      • statistics
      • human rights
    • Bolivia
    • Brazil

      • São Paulo
    • Chile

      • Easter Island
    • Colombia
    • Ecuador
    • Falkland Islands
    • French Guiana
    • Guyana
    • Paraguay
    • Peru

      • Cuzco
    • Suriname
    • Uruguay

      • timeline

        • 2020
        • 2021
    • Venezuela

    Others

    • Antarctica
    • Cruise ships

      • Diamond Princess
      • Grand Princess
    • Naval ships

      • Charles de Gaulle
      • USS Theodore Roosevelt

    Impacts

    Culture and

    leisure

    • Arts and cultural background

      • References in popular tradition
    • Cinema

      • films affected
    • Disney
    • Education

      • homeschooling
      • Ireland
      • United Kingdom

        • exam grading controversy
    • Events affected
    • Fashion industry
    • Music enterprise
    • Performing arts
    • Sports

      • By country

        • Ireland
        • Philippines
      • By sport

        • affiliation soccer
        • fight sports
        • cricket
        • disc golf
        • Gaelic games
        • motorsport
        • NBA
        • rugby league
    • Television

      • U.S.

        • programs affected
    • Video games

    Society

    and rights

    • Social

      • social media
      • stigma
      • COVID-19 events
    • Children

      • foster care in the U.S.
    • Gender
    • Healthcare workers
    • Hospitals

      • ICU capacity
    • Human rights
    • Legal

      • abortion inside the U.S.
      • crime

        • crime in Ireland
      • domestic violence
      • prisons
      • U.S. immigration detention
    • LGBT network
    • African-American communities
    • Native American groups
    • Long-time period care centers
    • Public delivery
    • Religion

      • Catholic Church
      • Hajj
    • Strikes
    • Xenophobia and racism

    Economic

    • Aviation

      • Airlines
    • Cannabis enterprise
    • Charitable activity
    • COVID-19 scams
    • COVID-19 recession
    • Economic

      • Canada
      • India
      • Ireland

        • COVID-19 Pandemic Unemployment Payment
      • Malaysia
      • New Zealand
      • U.K.
      • U.S.
    • Financial markets
    • Food industry

      • meat industry in Canada
      • meat industry inside the U.S.
      • restaurant enterprise within the U.S.
    • Global inventory marketplace crash
    • Hospitals
    • Mink farming
    • Oil charge warfare
    • Retail
    • Tourism
    • Travel restrictions

    Information

    • Journalism
    • Media insurance
    • Misinformation

      • Governments
      • China
      • United States
      • Plandemic
    • Wikipedia’s response

    Politics

    • National responses
    • Legislation
    • Protests

      • Canada
      • Italy
      • Germany
      • the Netherlands
      • New Zealand
      • Serbia
      • United Kingdom
      • United States

        • Open the States
    • International members of the family

      • Aid
      • Italy
      • Moldovan–Romanian collaboration
      • Respirator diplomacy of Taiwan
    • European Union

      • Ireland
    • Malaysia

    Language

    • Doomscrolling
    • Flattening the curve
    • Long-hauler
    • Quarantini
    • Social distancing
    • Superspreader
    • Zoom
    • Zoom towns

    Others

    • Animals
    • Anthropause
    • Environment
    • Military
    • Science and technology
    • Food safety

    Health issues

    Medical subjects

    • Transmission
    • Exposure
    • Symptoms
    • Cancer
    • Skin manifestations
    • Mental fitness

      • neurological, psychological and other intellectual health results
    • Pregnancy
    • Non-COVID-19–associated fitness troubles
    • Shortages
    • Raise the line
    • Rehabilitation
    • Unproven clinical strategies

    Testing and

    epidemiology

    • Disease checking out

      • Breathalyzer
      • Operation Moonshot
      • Test to Release
      • UK Rapid Test Consortium

        • AbC-19 rapid antibody test
    • Rapid antigen test
    • beginning

      • DRASTIC
    • Surveillance
    • Death prices with the aid of country
    • Datasets
    • Apps

      • careFIJI
      • COVID Alert (Canada)
      • COVID AlertSA (South Africa)
      • COVIDSafe
      • COVID Tracker Ireland
      • Coronavirus Australia
      • Aarogya Setu
      • NZ COVID Tracer
      • TraceTogether
      • BlueTrace
      • Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing
      • NHS COVID-19
      • MySejahtera
      • SwissCovid
      • TCN Protocol
      • Exposure Notification
      • COVID Symptom Study
      • Test, Trace, Protect
      • NHS Test and Trace
    • Undercounting COVID-19 deaths
    • Use and development of software program

    Prevention

    • Social distancing
    • Face masks

      • Mask refusal
      • United States
    • Flattening the curve
    • Workplace danger controls
    • Lockdowns
    • Evacuations
    • Immunity passports

      • COVID passports within the United Kingdom
    • International resource
    • Safe Hands Challenge
    • COVID fatigue
    • Great Barrington Declaration
    • Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine

    VaccinesTopics

    • Development
    • Authorizations
    • Deployment
    • Post-vaccination complications
    • Operation Warp Speed (U.S.)
    • Vaccine card

    AuthorizedInactivated

    • BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm–BBIBP)
    • Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
    • CoronaVac
    • Covaxin
    • COVIran Barekat
    • CoviVac (Russia)
    • Minhai
    • QazCovid-in
    • WIBP-CorV (Sinopharm–WIBP)

    RNA

    • Moderna
    • Pfizer–BioNTech

    Subunit

    • Abdala
    • EpiVacCorona
    • MVC
    • Soberana 02
    • ZF2001 (Zifivax)

    Viral vector

    • Convidecia
    • Janssen
    • Oxford–AstraZeneca
    • Sputnik V
    • Sputnik Light

    In trialsAttenuated

    • COVI-VAC (United States)

    DNA

    • AG0302-COVID‑19
    • GX-19
    • Inovio
    • ZyCoV-D

    Inactivated

    • FAKHRAVAC
    • TurkoVac
    • Valneva

    RNA

    • ARCT-021
    • ARCT-154
    • Bangavax
    • CureVac
    • HGC019
    • PTX-COVID19-B
    • Sanofi–Translate Bio
    • Walvax

    Subunit

    • Corbevax (Bio E COVID-19)
    • COVAX-19
    • EuCorVac-19
    • GBP510
    • Nanocovax
    • Novavax
    • Razi Cov Pars
    • Sanofi–GSK
    • SCB-2019
    • UB-612
    • V-01
    • V451 (terminated)
    • Vabiotech
    • West China Hospital

    Viral vector

    • BBV154
    • BriLife
    • DelNS1-2019-nCoV-RBD-OPT
    • GRAd-COV2
    • ImmunityBio
    • NDV-HXP-S

    Virus-like particles

    • CoVLP
    • VBI-2902

    Deployment

    by way of locationAfrica

    • Algeria
    • Angola
    • Benin
    • Botswana
    • Burkina Faso
    • Burundi
    • Cameroon
    • Cape Verde
    • Cameroon
    • Chad
    • Comoros
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Djibouti
    • Egypt
    • Equatorial Guinea
    • Eswatini
    • Ghana
    • Morocco
    • Nigeria
    • Senegal
    • South Africa
    • Zimbabwe

    Asia

    • Bangladesh
    • Bhutan
    • Mainland China
    • India
    • Indonesia
    • Israel
    • Japan
    • Kazakhstan
    • Malaysia
    • Nepal
    • Philippines
    • Russia
    • Singapore
    • South Korea
    • Sri Lanka
    • Taiwan
    • Thailand
    • Turkey
    • Vietnam

    Europe

    • Albania
    • Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • Bulgaria
    • Croatia
    • Denmark
    • France
    • Germany
    • Greece
    • Hungary
    • Iceland
    • Ireland
    • Italy
    • Moldova
    • Norway
    • Romania
    • Russia
    • Spain
    • Sweden
    • Switzerland
    • United Kingdom

    North America

    • Canada

      • Quebec
    • Haiti
    • Mexico
    • United States

    Oceania

    • Australia
    • Fiji
    • New Zealand

    South America

    • Argentina
    • Brazil
    • Colombia
    • Peru

    Others

    • Antarctica

    Treatment

    • Drug improvement
    • Drug repurposing research

      • Dexamethasone
      • Baricitinib
    • RECOVERY Trial (UK)
    • Solidarity trial (WHO)
    • Open-source ventilator
    • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Monoclonal antibodies

    • Bamlanivimab/etesevimab

      • Bamlanivimab
      • Etesevimab
    • Casirivimab/imdevimab
    • Regdanvimab
    • Sarilumab
    • Sotrovimab
    • Tocilizumab

    Broad-spectrum antiviral

    • Remdesivir

    Variants

    • Cluster 5
    • Variant of difficulty
    • Alpha
    • Beta
    • Gamma
    • Delta
    • Theta
    • Iota
    • Kappa
    • Lambda
    • Lineage B.1.617

    Institutions

    Hospitals and

    medical clinics

    • Hospital ships
    • Central Hospital of Wuhan
    • Dabie Mountain Regional Medical Centre
    • Fangcang hospitals
    • Huoshenshan Hospital
    • Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital
    • Leishenshan Hospital
    • Xinjia Express Hotel
    • COVID-19 Hospital in Mumbai
    • Kemayoran Athletes Village
    • Malaysia Agro Exposition Park Serdang
    • COVID-19 hospitals in the United Kingdom
    • Canberra Coronavirus Field Hospital
    • Hospital El Salvador
    • Pyongyang General Hospital
    • Sancaktepe Prof. Dr. Feriha Öz Emergency Hospital
    • Yeşilköy Prof. Dr. Murat Dilmener Emergency Hospital
    • Mega Ligtas COVID Centers
    • Dragon’s Heart Hospital
    • NHS Nightingale Hospitals

      • NHS Nightingale Hospital Birmingham
      • NHS Nightingale Hospital London
      • NHS Nightingale Hospital North East
      • NHS Nightingale Hospital North West
      • NHS Nightingale Hospital Yorkshire and the Humber
    • NHS Louisa Jordan
    • Kandakadu Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre

    Organizations

    • Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations
    • World Health Organization
    • United Nations

      • resolutions
    • International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses
    • COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium
    • Wuhan Institute of Virology (China)
    • Central Epidemic Command Center (Taiwan)
    • Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan)
    • COVID-19 Response Acceleration Task Force (Indonesia)
    • White House Coronavirus Task Force (United States)
    • COVID-19 Advisory Board (United States)
    • White House COVID-19 Response Team (United States)
    • Great American Economic Revival Industry Groups (United States)
    • Coronavirus Tech Handbook
    • Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases (Philippines)
    • Vaccine Taskforce (UK)
    • Joint Biosecurity Centre
    • PM CARES Fund (India)
    • Artist Relief (United States)
    • Covid Watch
    • SAARC COVID-19 Emergency Fund (India)
    • National Expert Group on Vaccine Administration for COVID-19 (India)
    • Outbreak Management Team (Netherlands)
    • COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund
    • Defeat COVID-19 Ad Hoc Committee
    • MusiCares COVID-19 Relief Fund
    • Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team (UK)
    • Independent SAGE (UK)
    • Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation
    • National Cabinet (Australia)
    • National COVID-19 Commission Advisory Board (Australia)
    • UN COVID-19 Supply Chain Task Force (WHO)
    • COVID-19 Supply Council (Canada)
    • ScienceUpFirst (Canada)
    • PREPARE (European Union)
    • National Public Health Emergency Team (Ireland)
    • National Institute for Communicable Diseases (South Africa)
    • Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (African Union)
    • Pasteur Institute (in Cambodia)
    • Ghana Infectious Disease Centre (Ghana)
    • COVID-19 Immunity Task Force (Canada)
    • Novel Coronavirus Expert Meeting (Japan)
    • Coronavirus Scientific Advisory Board (Turkey)
    • Crisis Preparedness and Response Centre (Malaysia)
    • Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (Korea)

    People

    Medical specialists

    • Ai Fen
    • Xie Linka
    • Liu Wen
    • Zhang Wenhong
    • Li Wenliang

    Researchers

    • Roberto Burioni
    • Wang Chen
    • Kizzmekia Corbett
    • Andrea Crisanti
    • Peter Daszak
    • Christian Drosten
    • Neil Ferguson
    • Dale Fisher
    • George F. Gao
    • Azra Ghani
    • Sarah Gilbert
    • Zeng Guang
    • Wang Guangfa
    • Kentaro Iwata
    • Katalin Karikó
    • Matt Keeling
    • Yuen Kwok-yung
    • Trudie Lang
    • Li Lanjuan
    • W. Ian Lipkin
    • Shabir Madhi
    • Awang Bulgiba Awang Mahmud
    • Allison McGeer
    • Zhong Nanshan
    • Zhang Jixian
    • Camilla Rothe
    • Moncef Slaoui
    • Mike Tildesley
    • John Todd
    • Chen Wei
    • Drew Weissman
    • Ma Xiaowei
    • Guan Yi
    • Zhang Yongzhen
    • Shi Zhengli

    OfficialsWHO

    • Tedros Adhanom (Director-General of the WHO)
    • Bruce Aylward (Team lead of WHO-China COVID-19 task)
    • Maria Van Kerkhove (Technical Lead for COVID-19 reaction)
    • Michael J. Ryan (Executive Director of the WHO Health Emergencies Programme)

    Countries

    • Frank Atherton (Wales)
    • Ashley Bloomfield (New Zealand)
    • Catherine Calderwood (Scotland)
    • Chang Shan-chwen (Taiwan)
    • Victor Costache (Romania)
    • Fabrizio Curcio (Italy)
    • Carmen Deseda (Puerto Rico)
    • Jaap van Dissel (the Netherlands)
    • Christian Drosten (Germany)
    • Francisco Duque III (Philippines)
    • Jeong Eun-kyeong (South Korea)
    • Anthony Fauci (United States)
    • Francesco Paolo Figliuolo (Italy)
    • Graça Freitas (Portugal)
    • Þórólfur Guðnason (Iceland)
    • Matt Hancock (United Kingdom)
    • Hamad Hasan (Lebanon)
    • Noor Hisham Abdullah (Malaysia)
    • Greg Hunt (Australia)
    • Tony Holohan (Ireland)
    • Li Keqiang (China)
    • Fahrettin Koca (Turkey)
    • Nguyễn Thanh Long (Vietnam)
    • Michael McBride (Northern Ireland)
    • Oriol Mitjà (Andorra)
    • Zweli Mkhize (South Africa)
    • Doni Monardo (Indonesia)
    • Alma Möller (Iceland)
    • Saeed Namaki (Iran)
    • Ali Pilli (Northern Cyprus)
    • Víðir Reynisson (Iceland)
    • Jérôme Salomon (France)
    • Chen Shih-chung (Taiwan)
    • Fernando Simón (Spain)
    • Gregor Smith (Scotland)
    • Su Ih-jen (Taiwan)
    • Łukasz Szumowski (Poland)
    • Theresa Tam (Canada)
    • Anders Tegnell (Sweden)
    • Sotiris Tsiodras (Greece)
    • Harsh Vardhan (India)
    • Carla Vizzotti (Argentina)
    • Vlad Voiculescu (Romania)
    • Chris Whitty (United Kingdom)
    • Lawrence Wong (Singapore)
    • Chuang Yin-ching (Taiwan)
    • Jeffrey Zients (United States)

    Others

    • Fang Bin
    • Brett Crozier
    • Fang Fang
    • Joseph Ashitey Hammond
    • Qiu Menghuang
    • Captain Tom Moore
    • Chen Qiushi
    • Li Zehua
    • Ren Zhiqiang

    Deaths

    List

    Data (templates)

    Global

    • Cases, deaths, recoveries with the aid of usa
    • Tests, instances, checks in step with capita, cases per capita with the aid of country
    • Tests, cases, tests consistent with capita, instances in step with capita through country subdivision
    • WHO state of affairs reviews

      • cases

        • January 2020
        • February 2020
        • March 2020
        • April 2020
        • May 2020
        • June 2020
        • July 2020
        • August 2020
        • September 2020
        • October 2020
        • November 2020
        • December 2020
        • January 2021
        • February 2021
        • April 2021
        • May 2021
        • June 2021
        • July 2021
      • deaths

        • January 2020
        • February 2020
        • March 2020
        • April 2020
        • May 2020
        • June 2020
        • July 2020
        • August 2020
        • September 2020
        • October 2020
        • November 2020
        • December 2020
        • January 2021
        • February 2021
        • April 2021
        • May 2021
        • June 2021
        • July 2021
    • World map by way of countries: confirmed according to capita

      • China
    • Hospital beds through u . s . a .
    • Lockdowns

    Africa

    • Algeria

      • chart
    • Angola

      • chart
    • Benin

      • chart
    • Botswana

      • chart
    • Burkina Faso

      • chart
    • Burundi

      • chart
    • Cameroon

      • chart
    • Comoros

      • chart
    • Egypt

      • chart
    • Eswatini

      • chart
    • Ethiopia

      • chart
    • Ghana

      • chart
    • Ivory Coast

      • chart
    • Kenya

      • chart
    • Libya

      • chart
    • Malawi

      • chart
    • Mali

      • chart
    • Mauritania

      • chart
    • Mauritius

      • chart
    • Morocco

      • chart
    • Mozambique

      • chart
    • Namibia

      • chart
    • Nigeria

      • chart
    • São Tomé and Príncipe

      • chart
    • Senegal

      • chart
    • Seychelles

      • chart
    • Sierra Leone

      • chart
    • South Africa

      • chart
    • South Sudan

      • chart
    • Sudan

      • chart
    • Tanzania

      • chart
    • Togo

      • chart
    • Tunisia

      • chart
    • Uganda

      • chart
    • Zambia

      • chart
    • Zimbabwe

      • chart

    Americas

    • Argentina

      • chart
    • Bolivia

      • chart
    • Brazil

      • chart
    • Canada

      • via province
      • chart
      • vaccinations by means of province
    • Chile

      • by commune
      • chart
    • Colombia

      • chart
    • Costa Rica

      • chart
    • Cuba

      • chart
    • Dominican Republic

      • chart
    • Ecuador

      • chart
    • El Salvador

      • chart
    • Guatemala

      • chart
    • Haiti

      • chart
    • Honduras

      • chart
    • Mexico

      • chart
    • Nicaragua

      • chart
    • Panama

      • chart
    • Paraguay

      • chart
    • Peru

      • chart
    • United States

      • by means of kingdom
      • chart
    • Uruguay

      • chart
    • Venezuela

      • chart

    Asia

    • Afghanistan

      • chart
    • Armenia

      • chart
    • Azerbaijan

      • chart
    • Bahrain

      • chart
    • Bangladesh

      • chart
    • Bhutan

      • chart
      • precis
    • Brunei

      • chart
    • Cambodia

      • chart
      • precis
    • Mainland China

      • aggregate
      • chart
      • showed according to capita
      • areas of lockdown
    • Cyprus

      • chart
    • Egypt

      • chart
    • Georgia

      • chart
    • Hong Kong

      • chart
    • India

      • chart
      • precis
    • Indonesia

      • chart
    • Iran

      • chart
    • Iraq

      • chart
    • Israel

      • chart
    • Japan

      • chart
    • Jordan

      • chart
    • Kazakhstan

      • chart
    • South Korea

      • chart
      • vaccinations charts
    • Kuwait

      • graph
      • chart
    • Kyrgyzstan

      • chart
    • Laos
    • Lebanon

      • chart
    • Malaysia

      • chart
    • Myanmar

      • chart
    • Nepal

      • chart
      • by district
      • PCR exams
    • Oman

      • chart
    • Pakistan

      • chart
    • Palestine

      • chart
    • Philippines

      • chart
      • regions of quarantine
      • vaccinations chart
    • Qatar

      • chart
    • Russia/North Asia

      • by way of federal challenge
      • chart
    • Saudi Arabia

      • chart
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